This article is the final part, Part 3 of the series, i.e., in continuation to the Part 1 and Part 2 of the series of this post.
This was originally covered in the Offshore World (OSW), a premier magazine, launched in 2003, covering key issues and trends relative to upstream, midstream, and downstream of the entire hydrocarbon value chain.
Water hammer analysis is carried out to investigate the following potential problems.
Surge due to Liquid Column Separation and Re-jointment:
Simultaneous shut down of the water pumps may cause excessive water hammer due to liquid column separation and re-jointment, especially round outlet pipes of the elevated piping portions.
Pressure Surge due to Slam-shut of Tripped Pump Check Valve:
Shut down ( or unintentional stop) of a water pump is followed by sudden closure of its discharge check valve Sudden closure of the check valve is likely to generate severe water hammer especially when one of the operating pumps shuts down and stand by pumps automatically starts.
Long-term Hydrostatic Design Basis (HDB)
Pipes are subjected to a long term hydrostatic tests wherein several samples are pressurized till failure over a period of time to derive the long term HDB and HDS. This is used in the Stress analysis and static calculations to come up with the thickness for each pressure class.
All pipes are manufactured on CNC controlled Filament Winding Machine which helically wind glass rovings at predetermined angles on a rotating mandrel. The rovings pass through a bath where they get impregnated with the epoxy resin. Thereafter the pipes are taken to an Oven to heat them up to temperatures ranging from 100o C upto 200o C depending on the type of system used.
CPP in-house laboratory can carry out the following tests:
- Tensile Strength test
- Stiffness Test
- Ring Split Test
- Beam Strength
- Lap Shear Strength Test
- Bond Strength Test
- Peel Strength Test
- Glass Content Test
- Barcol Hardness Test
- Hydro test
Oil & Gas industry in India is on the cusp of growth with constant capacity expansions and new refineries are being planned in Rajasthan and Maharashtra. With GRE being specified for Fire Water service and other areas of a Refinery by global EPC and Owners, we believe that the market for GRE piping will increase considerably.
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